International Federation of Associations of Anatomists

Federation Internationale des Associations d'Anatomistes


"To develop a complete mind: Study the science of art. Study the art of science. Develop your senses - learn how to see. Realize that everything connects to everything else"

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

Teaching Resources


1.  Anthropology Bone Repository: images of bone and teeth

by David Bryson, University of Derby, UK

This downloadable repository of osteological images includes:

  • known and unknown skulls from several regions
  • a teaching collection of skull and limb bones
  • a teeth collection 
  • a bone pathology collection
  • non-metric osteological features

2.  Gender Roots: An animation explaining terms used to describe gender and sex

submitted by Sarah Gluschitz, Centre of Biomedical Visualization, St George’s University, Grenada

Gender Roots aims to increase awareness and understanding of human diversity within the Caribbean region and across the globe. Roots in general are amorphic and asexual in their nature and thus offer a blank canvas for teasing out and exploring the often overlapping concepts of Anatomical Sex, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Attraction. The animation uses passive and inclusive language to invite people to open themselves up to see the fullness of our collective humanity.

Reseach and Scholarship Presentations and Papers

1. Addressing Bias in Medical Education through Inclusive Anatomical Representation

By Martha Ellen Katz et al., Harvard University, USA

A pioneering pilot project to replace the predominant anatomical representation of the human body as young, lean, white, and male by collecting and generating anatomical images of all human forms, including those who  have been systematically excluded from medical discourse. The pilot will develop into an open-source,  multimodal platform that fosters an accessible and collaborative model of medical education.

2. Pandemic Pedagogy: Transition to a virtual journal club in Anatomy

By Kerri Keet1, Janince Correia1, Rudolph Venter1,2, Karin Baatjes1,3, Quenton Wessels4: 1Division of Clinical Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Divisions of 3Surgery and 2Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, 4Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Namibia

A virtual journal club for Clinical Anatomy was implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, with synchronous meetings on Microsoft Teams, followed by asynchronous discussion on WhatsApp. Students’ perceptions were sought via open-ended questionnaires (2020 cohort) and semi-structured interviews (2021 cohort). Responses were analysed by Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis. The themes that developed were virtual format and content, with sub-themes of knowledge, time, challenges, and positive experience; and community of practice with sub-themes of social interaction and mentoring. The goals of journal club are to improve scientific writing and critical appraisal skills. The findings reveal that the educational benefits of journal club were retained in an online environment, with students adapting rapidly to the new format and forming a community of practice.

3. Beyond the Sex Binary: Toward the Inclusive Anatomical Sciences Education

by Goran Štrkalj and Nalini Pather; Department of Anatomy, Medicine & Health, UNSW Sydney

This paper has been published in Anatomical Sciences Education:                            Štrkalj, G. and Pather, N. (2021), Beyond the Sex Binary: Toward the Inclusive Anatomical Sciences Education. Anat. Sci. Educ., 14: 513-518. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.2002

Developments in biology and genetics in recent decades have caused significant shifts in the understanding and conceptualization of human biological variation. Humans vary biologically in different ways, including individually, due to age, ancestry, and sex. An understanding of the complexities of all levels of biological variation is necessary for efficient health care delivery. Important steps in teaching medical students about human variation could be carried out in anatomy classes, and thus, it is important that anatomical education absorbs new developments in how biological variation is comprehended. Consequently, the binary division in male and female sex has been called into question and a more fluid understanding of sex has been proposed. Some of the major textbooks teach anatomy, particularly of the urogenital system, as a male-female binary. Anatomical sciences curricula need to adopt a more current approach to sex including the introduction of the category of “intersex”/“differences in sexual development” and present sex as a continuum rather than two sharply divided sets of characteristics. 

4. Cervical Cancer in the Caribbean Region

By Claudia Cárceles Román, St. George's University, Grenada, West Indies

Cervical cancer is among the top three most common cancers amongst Caribbean women. To help address this issue, an animation was created in collaboration with the Women in Medicine Association and the Center for BioMedical Visualization at St. George’s University. The educational resource was created to provide sustainable and accessible material as an alternative for in-person outreach efforts, conducted before the pandemic. Aspects like narration by a Caribbean national, along with illustrations reflecting the Grenadian culture, helped the audience to better relate with the information being viewed. Creating relevant digital materials is another step of advancement, into modernizing the current health-promotion strategies and making it accessible through multi-channel campaigns, carried out by the WIM. The initiative was proven to be a successful tool capable of targeting isolated audiences in remote areas, who would otherwise be limited to accessing this important information.

Visual Art Exhibition

The Pelvis
by Janet Philp
University of Edinburgh Scotland
This pelvis is formed by needle felting wool to produce a solid life-size pelvis. Flowers associated with fertility were then formed with wet felting and needle felting to fill the structure.

The Rib Cage
by Janet Philp
University of Edinburgh Scotland
This rib cage is formed by needle felting wool to produce a solid life-size rib cage. Flowers associated were then formed with wet felting and needle felting to fill the structure.
Mother Earth
By Sayna Behkar
Ankara University Dentistry Faculty - Turkey
Mother Earth
by Sayna Behkar
Ankara University Dentistry Faculty - Turkey

Poetry and Prose

The Anatomy Lesson 

By Joana Storino, MD

This poem is a tribute to corpses by an anatomy teacher and poetry lover

Silent Teachers

By Sarah Gluschitz

St. George's University, Grenada

This poem was written as a token of appreciation for the donors and donor families of anatomical institutes.