Something to read

Below, we have gathered some references relevant to the field of ethics in anatomy, sorted by themes. The list is "work in progress", please send suggestions or comments to Andreas Winkelmann. As the list is long, we have extracted ten publications, which we recommend for a start as our "favourites".

Recent additions (August 2016):

 

"Favourites"

Journal Articles

Bolt S, Venbrux E, Eisinga R, Kuks Jbm, Veening J, Gerrits Po. Motivation for body donation to science: more than an altruistic act. Ann Anat, 2010; 192: 70-74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20188530

Champney T. A proposal for a policy on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues. Anat Sci Educ, 2011; 4: 49-52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265038

Hildebrandt S. Capital punishment and anatomy: history and ethics of an ongoing association. Clin Anat, 2008;21(1):5-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18058917.

Jones G.  Using and respecting the dead human body: An anatomist’s perspective.  Clin Anat, 2014; 27(6):839-843. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24753363

Kaufmann IM, Rühli FJ.  Without 'informed consent'?  Ethics and ancient mummy research. J Med Ethics, 2010; 36(10): 608-13.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20671292

Lang HJ. August Hirt and “Extraordinary Opportunities for Cadaver Delivery” to Anatomical Institutes
in National Socialism: A Murderous Change in Paradigm. Annals of Anatomy 2013;195:373-380. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23809210

Winkelmann A, Güldner FH. 2004. Cadavers as teachers: the dissecting room experience in Thailand. British Medical Journal. 329(7480):1455-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15604182.

Books

Fountain TK. 2014. Rhetoric in the flesh. Trained vision, technical expertise, and the gross lab. New York: Routledge

Jones, D.G., Whitaker, M.I. 2009. Speaking for the dead. The human body in biology and medicine. Farnham: Ashgate

Montross C. 2007. Body of work. Meditations on mortality from the human anatomy lab. New York: Penguin Press

 

Literature on ethics in anatomy

General / Overview

General

  • Andrews L, Nelkin D. Whose body is it      anyway? Disputes over body tissue in a biotechnology age. Lancet.      1998;351(9095):53-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9433437.
  • Barilan Y. Anatomy, Ethics of. In: Chadwick      R, editor. Encyclopedia of applied ethics. 2 ed. Amsterdam:      Academic Press, 2012. p. 116-26.
  • Barilan YM. The story of the body and the      story of the person: Towards an ethics of representing human bodies and      bodyparts. Med Health Care Philos 2005;8:193–205. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16215799
  • Cantor NL. After we die. The life and      times of the human cadaver. Washington DC: Georgetown University      Press, 2010.
  • Champney TH, A proposal for a policy on      the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues, Anat Sci Educ, 2011;4:49-52.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265038
  • Champney TH, Cadaver on the Cover, Letter      to the Editor, Acad Med, 2010;85(3):390. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182103
  • Charo RA, Body of research – Ownership and      use of human tissue, N Engl J Med, 2006;355:1517-1519. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17035644
  • Elamrani MD, El Fakiri MM, Benhima MA,      Choulli MK: L’éthique musulmane face à la dissection des cadavres humains      pour l’enseignement et la recherche en anatomie. Éthique et Santé 2015;      12: 97-102.
  • Goodwin M (ed.).The global body market.      Altruism’s limits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Herrmann B. Der menschliche      Körper zwischen Vermarktung und Unverfügbarkeit. Grundlinien einer Ethik      der Selbstverfügung. Freiburg: Karl Alber, 2011.
  • Jones DG, Whitaker MI. Speaking for the      dead. The human body in biology and medicine. Farnham: Ashgate, 2009
  • Jones DG. Anatomy and ethics: an      exploration of some ethical dimensions of contemporary anatomy. Clinical      Anatomy 1998;11:100-105 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9509922
  • Kanter SL, A Silent Mentor, Editorial, Acad Med, 2010;85(3):389.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182100
  • Roach M. Stiff. The curious lives of human      cadavers. New York:      W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
  • Satyapal KS. Ethics, transplantation, and      the changing role of anatomists. Clin Anat. 2005;18(2):150-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15696526.
  • Štrkalj G: Humanistic Anatomy: A New Program for an Old Discipline; see https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=57659.
  • Sukol RB. Building on a tradition of      ethical consideration of the dead. Human Pathology. 1995;26(7):700-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7628840
  • Wilkinson T. Last rights: the ethics of      research on the dead. Journal of Applied Philosophy. 2002;19(1):31-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12211260
  • Wilkinson TM. Respect for the dead and the      ethics of anatomy. Clinical Anatomy 27:286-290, 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23716492
  • Winkelmann A. Die      menschliche Leiche in der heutigen Anatomie. In: Graumann S; Grüber K (eds.):      Grenzen des Lebens. Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2007, pp. 62-74.

Lessons from the Past

  • Hildebrandt S. Anatomie im      Nationalsozialismus: Stufen einer ethischen Entgrenzung.      Medizinhistorisches Journal 2013;48(2):153-185.
  • Hildebrandt S. Stages of Transgression:      Anatomical Research in National Socialism. In: Rubenfeld S, Benedict S      (eds), Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust, Springer, 2014,      p68-85.
  • Hildebrandt S. Anatomy in the Third Reich:      An Outline, Part 3. The Science and Ethics of Anatomy in National      Socialist Germany      and Postwar Consequences. Clin Anat 2009;22:906-915. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19852049
  • Hildebrandt, S. The women on Stieve’s      list: victims of National Socialism whose bodies were used for anatomical      research. Clin Anat 2013;26:3-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23238847
  • Lang HJ. August Hirt and “Extraordinary      Opportunities for Cadaver Delivery” to Anatomical Institutes in National      Socialism: A Murderous Change in Paradigm. Annals of Anatomy 2013;195:373-380.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23809210
  • Winkelmann A, Noack T, The Clara cell: a      “Third Reich eponym”? Eur Resp J 2010;36:722-727. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223917
  • Winkelmann A, Schagen U. Hermann Stieve's      clinical-anatomical research on executed women during the "Third      Reich". Clin Anat. 2009;22(2):163-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19173259.

Body Donation

Experiences / Overviews

  • Biasutto SN, Sharma N, Weiglein AH, Benia      FM, McBride J, Bueno-López JL, Kramer B, Blyth P, Barros MD, Ashiru O,      Ballesteros LE, Moxham BJ, Krishnan S. Human bodies to teach anatomy:      Importance and procurement - experience with cadaver donation. Revista      Argentina de Anatomía Clínica. 2014;6(2):72-86.
  • Riederer BM, Bolt S, Brenner E,      Bueno-López JL, Circulescu A, Davies D, De Caro R, Gerrits P, McHanwell S,      Pais D, Paulsen F, Plaisant O, Sendemir E, Stabile I, Moxham BJ. The legal      and ethical framework governing Body Donation in Europe      – 1st update on current practice. European Journal of Anatomy.      2012;16(1):1-21.
  • Riederer BM, Bueno-López      JL. Anatomy, respect for      the body and body donation - a guide for good practice. European Journal      of Anatomy. 2014;18(4):361-8.
  • Schmitt, B, C Wacker, L Ikemoto, FJ Meyers      and C Pomeroy, 2014, A transparent oversight policy for human anatomical      specimen management: The University of California, Davis experience, Acad      Med, 89:410-414. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24448034

Experiences / Local Practices / Case Studies

  • Atlas MC. Ethics and access to teaching      materials in the medical library: the case of the Pernkopf atlas. Bull Med      Libr Assoc 2001;89(1):51-58. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11209801
  • Christensen AM. Moral considerations in      body donation for scientific research: a unique look at the University of Tennessee's anthropological      research faculty. Bioethics. 2006;20(3):136-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17039632
  • Fennell S, Jones DG. The bequest of human      bodies for dissection: a case study on the Otago medical school. New Zealand      Medical Journal. 1992;105:472-4. 1436875
  • Jones DG.1991. Bequests, cadavers and      dissections: sketches from New        Zealand history. NZ Med J 104:210-212. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2052220
  • Lin SC, Hsu J, Fan VY. "Silent virtuous      teachers": anatomical dissection in Taiwan. British Medical      Journal. 2009;339:b5001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20015895.
  • Osuagwu FC; Imosemi IO; Oladejo EW. Sources      of cadaver used for dissection at the Idaban medical school, Nigeria-      Analysis of three-year data. African Journal of Biomedical Research 2004;7:93-95
  • Subasinghe SK, Jones DG. Human Body      Donation Programs in Sri        Lanka: Buddhist Perspectives. Anat Sci Educ 2015
  • Winkelmann A, Güldner FH. Cadavers as      teachers: the dissecting room experience in Thailand. British Medical      Journal. 2004;329(7480):1455-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15604182.
  • Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang,      Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong. 2014. An overview of the roles and      responsibilities of Chinese medical colleges in body donation programs. Anatomical      Sciences Education 7:312-320. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24227762

Specific Sources of Bodies

  • Hildebrandt S. Capital punishment and      anatomy: history and ethics of an ongoing association. Clin Anat.      2008;21(1):5-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18058917.
  • Hildebrandt S. 2013. The case of Robert      Herrlinger: A unique postwar controversy on the ethics of the anatomical      use of bodies of the executed during National Socialism. Ann Anat      195:11-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22939191
  • Jones DG, Whitaker MI. Anatomy's use of      unclaimed bodies: reasons against continued dependence on an ethically      dubious practice. Clin Anat. 2012;25(2):246-54. 21800367.

Donors

  • Asad AL, Anteby M, Garip F. Who donates      their bodies to science? The combined role of gender and migration status      among California      whole-body donors. Soc Sci Med. 2014;106:53-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24534732.
  • Bohl M, Holman A, Mueller      DA, Gruppen LD, Hildebrandt S. 2013. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical student and donor      expectations. Anatomical Sciences Education 6(2):90-100 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109299
  • Bolt S, Venbrux E, Eisinga      R, Kuks Jbm, Veening J, Gerrits Po. 2010. Motivation for body donation to science:      more than an altruistic act. Ann Anat, 192: 70-74.
  • Bolt S, Eisinga R, Venbrux      E, Kuks, JBM, Gerrits PO. 2011. Personality and motivation for body donation. Ann Anat193:112-117. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21330124
  • Richardson R, Hurwitz B. Donors'      Attitudes towards Body Donation for Dissection. Lancet. 1995;346:277-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7630248
  • Talarico EF. 2013. A change in paradigm:      giving identity to donors in the anatomy laboratory. Clinical Anatomy      26:161-172. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22648791

Commercialisation

  • Anteby M. Markets, Morals, and Practices      of Trade: Jurisdictional Disputes in the U.S. Commerce in Cadavers. Adm      Sci Q. 2010;55:606–38.
  • Anteby M, Hyman M. Entrepreneurial      ventures and whole-body donations: a regional perspective from the United States.      Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(4):963-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18158205.

History of Body Donation / Procurement

  • Garment A, Lederer S, Rogers N, Boult L. Let the dead teach      the living: the rise of body bequeathal in 20th-century America. Acad      Med. 2007;82(10):1000-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17895666.
  • Halperin, E.C. The poor, the Black, and      the marginalized as the source of cadavers in the United States      anatomical education. Clinical Anatomy 2007;20:489–495. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17226823
  • Hulkower R. From sacrilege to privilege:      The tale of body procurement for anatomical dissection. Einstein J      Biol Med. 2011:23-6. http://www.einstein.yu.edu/uploadedFiles/EJBM/27.1%20Hulkower.PDF?n=1250
  • Humphrey DC. Dissection and      discrimination: The social origins of cadavers in America,      1760-1915. Bulletin of the New        York Academy      of Medicine. 1973;49(9):819-27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4582559
  • Leblond S. Anatomistes et      resurrectionnistes en France.      Can Med Assoc J. 1968;99(8):368-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4952900.
  • Richardson R. Death, dissection and the      destitute. Second edition with a new afterword. Chicago;      London: The University of Chicago      Press, 2000.
  • Sappol M. A traffic in dead bodies:      anatomy and embodied social identity in nineteenth century America.      Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University      Press, 2002.
  • Stukenbrock K. Der      zerstueckte Coerper: Zur Sozialgeschichte der anatomischen Sektionen in      der fruehen Neuzeit (1650-1800). Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2001.

Research on Cadaveric Specimens

Anatomy Teaching and Learning

  • Benninger B, Matsler N, Delamarter T. Classic      versus millennial medical lab anatomy. Clin Anat 2014;27:988-993. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24677128
  • Berman AC. Anatomy of curriculum: digging      to the core. Anat Sci Educ 2014;7:326-328. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24975923
  • Bernhardt V, Rothkötter HJ, Kasten E. Psychological      stress in first year medical students in response to the dissection of a      human corpse. GMS Zeitschr Med Ausb 2012;29(1):10-17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403597
  • Bertman S. One breath apart: facing      dissection. Republished 2009. Amityville: Baywood Publishing, 2007.
  • Bertman SL, Marks SC. Humanities in      medical education: Rationale and resources for the dissection laboratory. Medical      Education. 1985;19:374-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4058336
  • Böckers A, Baader C,      Fassnacht UK, Ochsner W, Böckers TM. Reduction in mental distress in the dissection course by      introducing the body donor experience through demonstrations of organs systems.      Anat Sci Educ 2012;5(6):321-329. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22653802
  • Böckers A, Brinkmann A, Jerg-Bretzke L,      Lamp C, Traue HC, Böckers TM. How can we deal with mental distress in the      dissection room?- an evaluation of the need for psychological support. Ann      Anat 2010;192(6):366-372. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20846838
  • Böckers A, Jerg-Bretzke L, Lamp C,      Brinkmann A, Traue HC, Böckers TM. The gross anatomy course: An analysis      of its importance. Anat Sci Educ 2010;3:3–11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20058224
  • Bohl M, Bosch P, Hildebrandt S. Medical      students' perceptions of the body donor as a "first patient" or      "teacher": a pilot study. Anatomical Sciences Education.      2011;4(4):208-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21618447.
  • Bourguet CC, Whittier WL, Taslitz N. Survey      of the educational roles of the faculty of anatomy departments. Clin Anat 2006;10:264-271
  • Brenner E, Pais D. The philosophy and      ethics of anatomy teaching. European Journal of Anatomy.      2014;18(4):353-60.
  • Crow SM, O’Donoghue D, Vannatta JB,      Thompson BM. 2012. Meeting the family: promoting humanism in gross      anatomy. Teach Learn Med 24(1):49-54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22250936
  • Dyer GS, Thorndike ME: Quidne mortui vivos      docent? The evolving purpose of human dissection. Acad Med      2000;75:969-979. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11031139
  • Fountain TK. Rhetoric in the flesh.      Trained vision, technical expertise, and the gross lab. New York: Routledge, 2014.
  • Francis NR, Lewis W. What price      dissection? Dissection literally dissected. Journal of Medical Ethics:      Medical Humanities. 2001;27:2-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16381096
  • Gelfand, T. 1972. The “Paris      manner” of dissection: student anatomical dissection in early      eighteenth-century Paris.      Bull Hist Med 46(2):99-130. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4564766
  • Gregory SR, Cole TR.The changing role of      dissection in medical education. JAMA 2002;287(9):1180-1181. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11879120
  • Grochowski CO, Cartmill M, Reiter J,      Spaulding J, Haviland J, Valea F, Thibodeau PL, McCorison S, Halperin EC. Anxiety      in first year medical students taking gross anatomy. Clin Anat 2014;27(6):835-838.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24740887
  • Hafferty FW. Into the valley of death.      Death and the socialization of medical students. New       Haven: Yale       University Press, 1991.
  • Hammer RR, Jones TW, Hussain FTN, Bringe      K, Harvey RE, Person-Rennell       NH, Newman JS. Students as      ressurectionists- a multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting      ethics and professionalism in historical context. Anat Sci Educ 2010;3:244-248.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20827724
  • Hildebrandt S. What is happening in our      anatomical dissection rooms? Clin Anat. 2014;27(6):833-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24648394.
  • Houwink AP, Kurup AN, Kollars JP, Kral      Kollars CA, Carmichael SW, Pawlina W. Help of third-year medical students      decreases first-year medical students’ negative psychological reactions on      the first day of gross anatomy dissection. Clin Anat 2004;17(4):328-333. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15108339
  • Jones TW, Lachman N, Pawlina W. Honoring      our donors: a survey of memorial ceremonies in United States anatomy      programs. Anat Sci Educ 2013;7:219-223. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24753299
  • Limbrecht K, Brinkmann A,      Lamp C, Böckers T, Traue HC, Jerg-Bretzke L.. Mortui vivos docent?—experienced burdens      of medical students in the gross anatomy course. Psychother      Psychosom Med Psychol 2013;63(8):327-333. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23468367
  • Montross C. Body of work. Meditations on      mortality from the human anatomy lab. New York: Penguin Press, 2007.
  • Pabst VC, Pabst R. Danken      und Gedenken am Ende des Präparierkurses. Deutsches Ärzteblatt      2006;103(45): A3008-3010. http://www.aerzteblatt.de/pdf.asp?id=53356
  • Rizzolo LJ. Human dissection: an approach      to interweaving the traditional and humanistic goals of medical education.      Anat Rec 2002;269:242-248. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12467081

Exhibition of Specimens / Body Worlds

  • Barilan YM. Bodyworlds and the ethics of      using human remains: A preliminary discussion. Bioethics 2006;20:233–247. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17100007
  • Jespersen TC, Rodriguez A, Starr J. The      anatomy of body worlds. Critical essays on the plastinated cadavers of      Gunther von Hagens. Jefferson: McFarland      and Company, 2009.
  • Jones DG, Whitaker MI. Engaging with      plastination and the Body Worlds phenomenon: a cultural and intellectual      challenge for anatomists. Clin Anat. 2009;22(6):770-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19585569.
  • Jones DG. Re-inventing Anatomy: The Impact      of Plastination on How We See the Human Body. Clin Anat 2002;15:436-440. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12373732
  • King, Mike R.; Whitaker, Maja I.; Jones,      D. Gareth. I see dead people: insights from the humanities into the nature      of plastinated cadavers. Journal of Medical Humanities 2014;35:361-376. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23519649
  • Lantos JD. Controversial bodies: thoughts      on the public display of plastinated corpses. Johns Hopkins       University Press, 2011.
  • Moore CM, Brown CM. Experiencing body      world: voyeurism, education, or enlightenment? J Med Humanit 2007;28(4):231-254.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17876528
  • Moore CM, Brown CM. Gunther von Hagens and      Body Worlds Part 1: the anatomist as prosecutor and proplastiker. Anat Rec      B New Anat 2004;276(1):8-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14750189
  • Moore CM, Brown CM. Gunther von Hagens and      Body Worlds Part 2: the anatomist as priest and prophet. Anat Rec B      New Anat 2004;276(1):14-20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15052650
  • Peuker T, Schulz C. Der über      Leichen geht. Ch.Links      Verlag, 2004
  • Walter T. Body Worlds: clinical detachment      and anatomical awe. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2004;26:464-88. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15268703
  • Wetz FJ. Tote sind nur ein      Problem für Lebende. Menschenwürde und Plastination. Ann Anat.      2000;182:385-91.
  • Wetz FJ, Tag B. Schöne neue      Koerperwelten: der Streit um die Ausstellung. Klett-Cotta, 2001

Human Remains / Physical Anthropology

  • Blakely R, Harrington JM. (eds.) Bones in      the Basement: Postmortem Racism in Nineteenth-Century Medical Training. Washington and London:      Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.
  • Kaufmann IM, Rühli FJ. Without 'informed      consent'? Ethics and ancient mummy research. J Med Ethics.      2010;36(10):608-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20671292.
  • MacDonald H. Human remains: dissection and      its histories. New Haven and London: Yale       University Press, 2006.
  • Satyapal KS. The treatment of human remains. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. 2012;5(1):55-60.
  • Schmitt B, Wacker C, Ikemoto L, Meyers F. A      transparent oversight policy for human anatomical specimen management: the      University of California, Davis experience. Journal of Anatomy 2014;89:410-414.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24448034

Forensic Autopsies

  • Elger BS, Hofner MC, Mangin P. Research      involving biological material from forensic autopsies: legal and ethical      issues. Pathobiology. 2009;76(1):1-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188745.

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